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Doctor Dunbar's Good Little Dog Book, 3rd edition

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内容提示: Dr. Dunbar’sGOOD LITTLE DOG BOOKA Puppy Training Guidefor the DVDs“Training the Companion Dog”& “Training Dogs With Dunbar”based onDr. Dunbar’sSIRIUS®Puppy TrainingJames & KennethP U B L I S H E R S Dr. Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK© 2003 Ian DunbarThird Edition published in 2003 by:James & Kenneth Publishers2140 Shattuck Avenue #2406Berkeley, California 947041-800-784-5531James & Kenneth—UKCathargoed Isaf, Golden GroveCarmarthen, Dyfed SA32 8LY01558-823237Printed in the United States of Americ...

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Dr. Dunbar’sGOOD LITTLE DOG BOOKA Puppy Training Guidefor the DVDs“Training the Companion Dog”& “Training Dogs With Dunbar”based onDr. Dunbar’sSIRIUS®Puppy TrainingJames & KennethP U B L I S H E R S Dr. Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK© 2003 Ian DunbarThird Edition published in 2003 by:James & Kenneth Publishers2140 Shattuck Avenue #2406Berkeley, California 947041-800-784-5531James & Kenneth—UKCathargoed Isaf, Golden GroveCarmarthen, Dyfed SA32 8LY01558-823237Printed in the United States of AmericaAll rights reserved. Except for brief quotations used inreviews, no part of this publication may be reproduced inany form without the written permission of the publisher.First published in 1992 by Spillers Pet FoodsSecond Edition in 1996 by James & Kenneth PublishersIBSN 1-888047-02-X For the dogs:Ashby, Phoenix, and OsoSince the second editionwas written, Ashby andPhoenix have died,and Oso has grown old,but he still enjoys hissunset years.PhoenixAshbyOso Photo CreditsAnonymous: page 126Linda Carlson: pages 5, 36, and back coverDolphin Experience: page 19Jamie Dunbar: pages 10, 68, 69, 72, 83, 86, 87, and 90Nancy Hachmeister: page 169Wayne Hightower: page 13Mimi Whei Ping Lou: page 103Neal Morrison: page 55Carmen Noradunghian: pages 18 and 150Sue Pearson: page 12Spillers Pet Foods: pages 6, 8, 9, 108, and front coverDiana Robinson: pages 20, 33, 58, 59, 62, 63, 70, 71, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 93, and 159Lesley Spanton: page 106All other photographs were taken by the author.Front Cover Design by Quark & Bark Late Night Graphics Co.Back Cover Design by Montessaurus Media.Filming puppy classes at Newhouse ContentsONE: Get Ahead of the Pack . . . . . . . . .11Why Train? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Establish the Status Quo Right Away . . .14Training Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Socialization and Bite Inhibition . . . . . . .16Household Etiquette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Good Manners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18TWO: E's of Lure/Reward Training . . .21Efficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Effective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Easy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Efficacious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Enjoyable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Expedient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29THREE: Food Lures and Rewards . . . .31Food Rewards for Teaching Manners . . . .32Food Lures for Teaching Manners . . . . . .32Food Rewards for Behavior Modification .34Food Lures for Behavior Modification . . .35Food Lures and Rewards for TemperamentTraining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Food Critics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37Pros and Cons of Training Tools . . . . . . .40Rules for Training Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41FOUR: Good Manners . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45Sit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Down from the Sit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50Sit from the Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51Stand from the Sit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52Down from the Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53Stand from the Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54Alternative Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55Roll Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56Body Position Change Sequences . . . . . .58Quantum Leaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601. Phasing Out Food Lures . . . . . . . . . . .602. Reducing Food Rewards . . . . . . . . . . .603. Phasing Out Food Rewards . . . . . . . .614. Phasing Out External Rewards . . . . . .61Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62Stay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63So What Has Joe Pup Really Learned? . .64Life Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64Settle Down and Shush . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67Recalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70Walking On-Leash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .721. Following Off-Leash . . . . . . . . . . . . . .732. Heeling Off-Leash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .763. Heeling On-Leash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .824. Walking On-Leash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83Red-Light/Green-Light . . . . . . . . . . . . .83On-Leash Following . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84Troubleshooting Problem Scenarios . . .84Walking the Dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86FIVE: Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89First Impressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91Family First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91Handling and Gentling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91Hand-Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93Off and Take It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94Gently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96Controlling Puppy Biting . . . . . . . . . . . . .961. Inhibiting the Force of Bites . . . . . . . . .982. Inhibiting the Incidence of Mouthing .100Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101Teaching Children How to Act AroundPuppies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102Teaching Puppies How to Act AroundChildren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103Puppy Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105Pass the Puppy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107SIX: Household Etiquette . . . . . . . . . .109Housetraining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112Chewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116Digging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Barking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120Training Your Dog to Woof On Cue . . .122Woof-Shush Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . .122Home Alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124Separation Anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125Separation Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128Jumping Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129Yet Another Puppy Party? . . . . . . . . . . .131SEVEN: Six Basic Exercises . . . . . . . .133EIGHT: Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 8Filming "Dogs With Dunbar"...with author Jilly Cooper,actress Liza Goddard,and actress/authorAlexandra Bastedo. This little book was written with so many goodmemories of wonderful summers in England with theArk Production team, filming the "Dogs With Dunbar"television series at Newhouse in the New Forest.Warm woofs and happy wags to all involved: toDirector Steve "Guinness" Ray and Producer VeronicaCharlwood (I am especially indebted to Veronica—thank you Veronica!), to the camera crew, to Pam andYvonne at Ark Productions, to Clive at TVS, to Maryat Spillers (who make the munchies for the dogs), andespecially to the real stars—the wonderful puppies andtheir wonderful owners.Newhouse in the New Forest Dr Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOKRather than trying to act like a dog, it iseasier, and much more practical, to teachdogs to understand our language. CHAPTER ONEGet Ahead of the PackAnd the View Will Improve!So Joe Pup has come to live with you! Now what? Basically, you areat a fork in the road. Living with a dog can be a joy, or a pain. Thesuccess of the future relationship depends on you teaching yourpuppydog the rules and regulations of domestic living. The mostimportant time in a dog's life is right now. First impressions are sovery important for all dogs, and especially for puppies. Consequently,the next few weeks are crucial to doggy development. A little helpand guidance at this stage will have a profound and long-lastingeffect, which will enrich the doggy-human relationship for years tocome. So don't delay, train today!Why Train?Let's begin by asking ourselves, "Why train?" Well, training is reallyjust another means of communicating with and better understandinga non-verbal creature, be it a pet dog, a pre-verbal child, or apartially-verbal sibling or spouse. Our best friend—the domestic dog—is a social animal. It wouldbe inconsiderate and antisocial not to train it. How else could wecommunicate with each other? By learning doggy lingo? Would it notbe impractical to try to communicate with our dog via urine marks,ear positions, and tail wags? Anyway, few humans could ever masterthe many nuances of the various dog languages. Luckily, though,dogs can easily learn our language, if only we teach them! Basically,dog training comprises teaching dogs ESL—English as a SecondLanguage—so that our dogs will understand human words for doggybehaviors and actions.11GET AHEAD OF THE PACK Remember, we are asking dogs to live with us—in our domesticenvironment, and according to our customs and rules. Consequently,it is only fair for us to teach dogs how to avoid causing offense tofamily, friends, or any members of the general public with whom theymay come into contact—especially non-dog owners. It is no good forus to have strict doggy rules but then keep them a secret from ourdogs.A well-trained dog can be a joy to live with: a householdcompanion with whom to share our day; an enthusiastic and attentivegreeter to always welcome us home; a furry psychologist to listen toour woes with an expression of sympathetic concern; a catalyst to gofor walks and keep fit and healthy; and above all, a snuggly warmmass to cuddle on the couch. However, these benefits do not come bymagic. Children and parents alike must realize that cartoon dogs arefantasy, and that Lassie, Benji, and Eddie were all highly trainedanimals. (In fact, Lassie was several highly trained animals.) For yourdog to become a well-behaved and an enjoyable family pet, it toomust be trained and socialized. And why not train your dog? The training game can be a lot offun. Just one look at our videos and television programs and you cansee both owners and dogs are wagging their tails and obviouslyhaving the time of their lives. Why not learn how to have fun withyour dog? And why not let your dog have some fun with you? UsingDr. Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK12Dogs cannot readdog training books.Therefore, we need toteach them ourhousehold rules,basic manners, andsocial etiquette;otherwise they willlive by doggy rules,and paw, and sniff,and pee when saying hello. the methods in this book, it is possible to enjoy training your dogwhile snuggling on the couch, reading romance novels, watchingtelevision, taking dog walks in the town or countryside, playing in thepark, or picnicking on the beach.Sadly, many dog owners are hesitant about training their dogs.Certainly, much antipathy towards training stems from thecatastrophic influence of the last century's Trainers from The DarkSide. Many people think that training is a drag because in thetwentieth century, dog training was a drag. There were just too manyjerks at both ends of the leash. Far too many trainers treated their bestfriend like their worst enemy. So much so, in fact, that some ownersstill suffer the misassumption that it is necessary to dominate theirdog and force it to obey: to squish the little sucker into a sit, todemand de-motivated downs, or to subject the poor dog to chained-collar heeling from Hell. Not so! With the many recent advances and innovations in dogtraining techniques, force-methods are simply not necessary. Neitherdo they work that well in real-life settings. Moreover, although force-methods may have some short-term gains (although I can not think ofany off-hand), there are many long-term losses—namely, the dog'sreliability of performance, its good temperament, its confidence andtrust in its owner, and ultimately the owner's peace of mind. When owners incorporateexcessive corrections orpunishments into a trainingprogram, many dogs quicklydevelop Jekyll & Hyde—typepersonalities. Rather thanlearning what the trainer istrying to teach, the dog simplylearns the times and situationswhen it need not obey becauseit cannot be punished.Whereas a dog mightgrudgingly comply whenforced to do so and whenpunishment is imminent, it's aGET AHEAD OF THE PACK13Eddie whole different story when the dog is off-leash, out of reach, or leftat home unsupervised. In particular, off-leash reliability suffers badlyand the dog develops a variety of owner-absent misbehaviors. Punishment often creates additional problems. Repeatedpunishment may make your dog fearful and aggressive. And with toomany corrections, the dog may grow to dislike its trainer (i.e., you!)as much as it dislikes training.It is kinder and smarter by far to teach your dog how to enjoyacting like a dog in a fashion that is both appropriate and acceptableto you. For example, you can teach your dog where to pee and poop(in its indoor or outdoor doggy toilet), what to chew (chewtoys),when to bark (in response to the doorbell), when to jump up (onrequest for a hug), and when to pull on leash (to help you walk upsteep hills).Smarter yet is to teach your dog to comply with your wisheshappily and willingly, by luring your dog to do what you want, andthen rewarding it handsomely. Indeed, dog-friendly dog trainingfocuses on teaching your dog to want to do what you want it to do.Establish the Status Quo Right AwayEstablish good habits from the outset. Remember, good habits are justas hard to break as bad habits! The way your dog is allowed to behave during the first couple ofweeks at home will set the precedent for many months and years tocome. Consequently, you must take the time to teach your dog therules of its new household, or it will improvise and develop rules ofits own. Even though your puppy is small, cute, and cuddly, you shouldimagine it as an adult and treat it accordingly. It would be unfair andinhumane to allow or encourage your pup to behave in a manner forwhich it might be punished later in life. For example, it would becruel to allow the pup to jump up—let alone pet it when it does so—only to punish it for doing the same thing when it grows up. If youdon't want your dog to jump up, pull on leash, bark excessively, orsoil the house as an adult, then don't allow your puppy to indulge inDr. Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK14 these activities. Time invested now—teaching the required standardsof behavior—will save months of misery for you and your dog lateron. Establish an acceptable status quo from the outset and your dogwill happily act this way as an adult.Remember, though, behavior is always changing—sometimes forthe better, sometimes for the worse. Basically, things improve if youwork with your dog, and things often get worse if you don't. Bothbehavior and temperament tend to stabilize once the dog has reachedits second or third birthday. Nonetheless, always be alert for thedevelopment of unwanted behaviors and quickly nip incipientproblems in the bud. Do not dilly-dally, otherwise new problems willquickly develop into hard-to-break habits.Training PrioritiesMany people consider dog training to be synonymous with obedienceand teaching basic manners. However, for pet dogs, socialization,developing bite-inhibition, and learning household etiquette are allmuch more important and far more urgent.GET AHEAD OF THE PACK15SIRIUS®Puppy Training classes at Citizen Canine in Oakland, California Certainly, basic manners are very important and play a prominentrole in the prevention and treatment of many behavior andtemperament problems. However, specific socialization, biteinhibition, and temperament training exercises during puppyhood arefar more important for a pet dog. Whereas it is possible (albeit a bitof a pain) to live with a dog with no manners, it is a bigger pain tolive with a dog that has no bite inhibition and lacks confidencearound family and friends, especially children. Teaching bite inhibition and socializing your puppy to people arethe most important items on its educational agenda. Your pup needsto be introduced to a wide variety of people—especially children,men, and strangers. Your pup needs to experience all the possiblesettings and situations it is likely to encounter as an adult dog,including meeting a wide variety of other dogs. Puppies that grow upto like other dogs and people can be a dream, whereas fearful and/orantisocial dogs can be a nightmare. Socializing your puppy and teaching it to inhibit the force of itsbites are both developmentally sensitive priorities and must beDr. Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK16Socialization and Bite InhibitionIt is easy to socialize a puppy. However, keeping an adolescent dogsocialized requires frequent walks and frequent visits to dog parks. accomplished during early puppyhood. The narrow time-window foroptimal socialization will begin to close by the time your pup is justtwelve weeks old. Additionally, your puppy must develop a softmouth before it is four-and-a-half months old.Socializing a young puppy is easy and enjoyable. Socializing afearful adolescent or adult dog is extremely time-consuming andheart-breaking. Teaching a young puppy to inhibit the force of itsbites can be time-consuming and frustrating, but it is absolutelyessential! Attempting to teach bite inhibition to an adolescent or adultdog is difficult, time-consuming, and potentially dangerous.Prevention is the key. Establish good habits from the outset. Goodhabits are just as hard to break as bad habits!Household EtiquetteTeaching basic manners is a pressing item in your puppy'seducational curriculum. However, much more urgent is your pup'seducation regarding household etiquette. In particular, your pupneeds to be taught how to express its doggy nature in an appropriateway. Your pup needs to learn acceptable outlets for its normal,natural, and necessary canine behaviors, such as where to relieveitself, what to chew, where to dig, and when (and for how long) tobark. Puppies must especially be taught how to idle away the manyhours of the day when left at home alone. GET AHEAD OF THE PACK17Your puppyneeds to learnwhere torelieve itselfand what tochew. Adolescent dogs with no respect for house or garden tend to wearthin their welcome. Misbehaving dogs are usually abandoned orsurrendered to animal shelters. Indeed, predictable and preventablebehavior problems are the most common terminal illnesses for petdogs.Preventing the development of highly predictable behaviorproblems is just so easy. Breaking established bad habits can be quitetime-consuming. Prevention is the key. Establish good habits fromthe outset. Good habits are just as hard to break as bad habits!Good MannersYour puppy needs to be schooled ingood manners and learn how to actaround people: specifically, to sitwhen greeting people, to settle downwhen requested, and to walk calmlyon leash. Using lure/reward techniques, it iseasy to train your puppydog at anyage. However, lure/reward trainingtechniques are just so easy, and somuch fun, you may as well starttraining your puppy right away. Thereis simply nothing as thrilling aswatching a young pup learn to come,sit, lie down, and roll over in its veryfirst lesson. A puppy's attentiveness,eagerness, and exuberance for the training game are truly astounding.It is time to show off your puppy to family, friends, and neighbors.Your puppy's attention will begin to wander as it approachesadolescence and develops adult doggy interests. Getting a head starton your puppy's education will make it much easier to control yourpuppy's rambunctious behavior as it weathers the social storm ofadolescence. Prevention is the key. Establish good habits from theoutset. Good habits are just as hard to break as bad habits!Dr. Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK18 The lure/reward method described in this book is not limited totraining puppies. On the contrary, since this book was first published,lure/reward techniques have become the method of choice forrehabilitating fearful and aggressive dogs, and for instructing good-natured, but otherwise uneducated, adult dogs. Lure/reward methods are de rigeur for training lions, tigers, killerwhales, and grizzly bears. Over a century ago, similar off-leashtechniques were the accepted practice for training dogs and puppies.Unfortunately, they were replaced with a harsher regime of laborious,on-leash, push-pull, squish-squash, narrow-brained methods. Withmost dogs it is unnecessary to use force. With many dogs it iscounterproductive. Why treat your best friend like an adversary in thedomestic training arena? Welcome back to lure/reward training—thehistorically-proven, so-old-that-it-is-new-again, commonsense,natural, easy and enjoyable way to train your puppydog.GET AHEAD OF THE PACK19Lure/reward methods are de rigeur for training pigs, parrots, polar bears,killer whales, and dolphins. Why do we discriminate against dogs (andhorses)? Don't dogs deserve to be taught using the same fun methods? Dr Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK20Lure......and reward. CHAPTER TWOE's of Lure/Reward TrainingLure/reward pet dog training techniques are Efficient, Effective,Easy, Efficacious, Enjoyable, and Expedient. Compared with tryingto train using corrections and punishments, lure/reward techniquesrequire less owner effort to produce much quicker and more reliabledoggy results.EfficientLure/reward methods take less time than trying to train usingcorrections and punishments. By nature, lure/reward training is muchmore efficient than punishment-training. Whereas there are aninfinite number ways for the dog to get it wrong (which require aninfinite number of punishments), there is only one right way! So interms of your time-investment and your dog's speed of learning, it isfar better to show your dog exactly what is required and to reward itfor complying, than it is to attempt the impossible—trying to punishthe dog for each and every mistake.Housetraining is a fine example. The average dog could think ofan infinite number of choice locations to empty its bladder andbowels in the space of a 200-square-foot living room alone. Since thedog could make an infinite number of mistakes, correcting theproblem would require an infinite number of corrections, and hencean infinite amount of time. Punishment-training is like the Myth ofSisyphus—an everlastingly laborious and theoretically impossibletask. On the other hand, I can think only of one appropriate place formy dogs to relieve themselves—in the P Zone (underneath the plumtree at the bottom of the garden). Consequently, using lure/rewardmethods, housetraining becomes a quick and easy process. All weE's OF LURE/REWARD TRAINING21 have to do is show our dog where we would like it to relieve itself,and then praise and reward it for doing so.The same principle applies to other potential behavior problemslike chewing, digging, and barking. Teach your dog what to chew,where to dig, and when to bark, and then reward it for doing so. Wemay extend the same principle to teaching manners. Rather thanpunishing a dog for jumping up, teach it to sit when greeting peopleand to jump up only when requested to "Give a Hug!"There is an additional reason that punishment-training takes moretime: the trainer has to wait for the dog to misbehave before it can bepunished. Now if that isn't just too silly for words, I don't know whatis. Aside from being decidedly unfair to provide the dog with noeducation and then punish it for breaking rules it never knew existed,what a ridiculous delay in training—to fiddle about and wait aroundfor transgressions from an untrained dog. Why not be proactive andjust teach your dog how you would like it to behave? Lure/rewardtraining allows you to take the initiative and teach your dog what youwould like it to do before it is forced to improvise and make mistakes.In fact, with correct management, lure/reward housetraining andchewtoy training can be virtually errorless.Dr Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK22Phoenie says, "Training mustbe efficient. If training is a bigtime-investment, people won'tbe bothered, and dogs will bedeprived of their education.Dogs won't learn to understandEnglish as a Second Language.Dogs won't be able tounderstand their owners. Dogs won't learn house rulesand domestic etiquette, and sodogs will be forced to make uptheir own rules and act likedogs. And then their humancompanions will become upset.And that's not good! Training has to be efficient." EffectiveDog training techniques must work: that is, they must be effective.Otherwise training would be a waste of time. Punishment-training is relatively ineffective for pet dog training.People are just too inconsistent for punishment-training techniques towork in the domestic setting. Many dog books emphasize consistency as the hallmark ofsuccessful training. Consistency is essential if one attempts to enforcehousehold rules and manners using correction and punishment. Forpunishment-training to be effective, the dog must be punished eachand every time it misbehaves. Now, apart from being a lot of work,this is actually impossible in most households. People are simply not100% consistent 100% of the time. Certainly people can concentratefor short periods, but not all the time. Even when people try theirhardest to concentrate for limited periods, their attention oftenwanders.The myth of successful punishment-training comes fromscientific research. Animal learning theory evolved from literallythousands of experiments involving millions of laboratory rats andpigeons, many of which were effectively trained using punishment-training (plain and simple punishment, aversive conditioning, andavoidance learning). In the laboratory experiments, the animals'behavior was monitored by electronic and mechanical sensors andpunishment (usually electric shock) was automatic, or administeredby computer.Although punishment-training works extremely well in thelaboratory, where animals are trained by tirelessly consistentcomputers, punishment-training is notoriously ineffective whenpeople train animals, or when people teach people. In fact, wereunfortunate dogs not abused in the process, punishment-trainingwould be one huge joke. Aside from being a colossal effort, and not working particularlywell in practice, punishment-training has yet another majordrawback. The dog only has to misbehave without being punishedonce to learn that there are occasions when it will not be punished fordoing what it likes. This creates a multitude of problems, includingE's OF LURE/REWARD TRAINING23 owner-absent behavior problems, owner-present but functionally-absent problems, and owner physically-present but mentally-absentproblems.1. Owner-Absent ProblemsThe dog learns it would be a mite foolhardy to act like a dog when itsowner is present, and so it intelligently waits for its owner to leavebefore indulging its basic doggy nature. The dog learns to enjoyexpressing its normal, natural, and necessary doggy behavior (usuallyin a manner which owners consider to be inappropriate and annoying)when the owner is physically absent (out of the room, or away fromhome). Thus, punishment is often a primary motivator for owner-absent housesoiling, chewing, digging, and barking. In a sense, theso-called "treatment" is the cause. 2. Owner-Present but Functionally-Absent ProblemsThe dog learns it cannot be punished for misbehaving when it is off-leash and out of reach, or when the owner cannot respond (chattingon the telephone, taking a shower, cooking at the stove, feeding thebaby, talking to someone on the street, or driving a car). To makematters worse, these are all extremely inconvenient times for yourdog to act up and misbehave.3. Owner Physically-Present but Mentally-Absent ProblemsDogs quickly learn to discern those times when their owners arementally absent, and not paying attention. The less said about this thebetter. But now the good news! Whereas consistency is absolutelyessential for punishment-training to be effective, there is no need tobe consistent when lure/reward training. In fact, inconsistency canactually be advantageous when rewarding a dog. Whenever your dogcomplies with your wishes, you may reward it if, and when, you like.Distribute the rewards whenever the fancy takes you—totally atrandom, if you like. You don't have to reward your dog every time.Isn't that just wickedly wunderbar? Dr Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK24 Consider, for example, the allure of a one-armed bandit (slotmachine), which dispenses a variety of rewards at random, comparedwith the dull predictability of an ATM, or a food vending machine,which pays out all the time (or at least is meant to). It may seemstrange, but we humans will actually work harder and longer forfewer rewards if the rewards are unpredictable. Nothing spoils a dogmore quickly, or devalues rewards in training, than handing outrewards willy nilly for every remotely correct response. What's more,when the dog is rewarded all the time, it takes only one responsewithout reward for the critter to go on strike. One failed attempt to getfood out of a vending machine and we assume it's broken. We stoptrying. Similarly, one unrewarded "Sit" and your dog surmises,"Ahhhh Hah! I don't think she has a reward to give me," and the dogstops trying.So adopt the slot machine approach. Make the handouts appear tobe unpredictable, so your dog learns it is not uncommon for a numberof unrewarded trials to be followed by a big payout. Vary thefrequency, type, and amount of praise and rewards and you'll findyour dog will gladly oblige without having to be rewarded each time.This puts you in the driver's seat. You have discovered a powerful andenjoyable means of motivating your dog and modifying its behaviorto your liking. E's OF LURE/REWARD TRAINING25Training must be effective.Training has to work, otherwise it's abit of a waste of time—unless it's fun,of course. Fun training usually doeswork, though. Unpleasant trainingusually doesn't. When people try totrain dogs by punishing them forinappropriate behavior, usually dogsdon't learn what their people wantthem to learn. Instead, dogs learnthose times when they can act likedogs without being punished. This German Shepherd learned thatthe best time to snack on garbagewas when her person left the house to go out to dinner. EasyYou know, saying "Whattt a good doggie," patting, stroking,scratching the little critter behind its ear, or even giving a food treatis all so effortless, while reprimanding or punishing a dog oftenrequires considerable effort. One has to get up, get stern, and get overto the poor dog to deliver the punishment. Moreover, mostpunishment routines involve physical manhandling. Pushing, pulling,shaking, or "alpha-rolling" the dog can be quite tiring, and wellbeyond the physical capabilities of most novice dog owners.Considering that many dog-owning families include children (whotry to mimic their parents' behavior), attempting to control a dog byphysical punishment or force is not only cruel and stupid, it ispotentially dangerous. Dr Dunbar's GOOD LITTLE DOG BOOK26Phoenie says, "Training must be easy. Easy for people and easyfor dogs. If training is not easy, the techniques may be wellbeyond the capabilities of many people, especially children. If training is not easy, some people may not even try. That's not good. Training must be easy." Dog training techniques must be effective, but they also must producethe desired effect without unwanted side-effects. Otherwise trainingcould be counterproductive. When reward-training goes awry, your dog may not completelymaster what you want it to learn, but it does learn to enjoy yourineffectual attempts at reward-training, and it does learn to develop afondness for its hapless trainer—the reward-giver, i.e., you. On the other hand, when punishment-training goes awry (as isoften the case), your dog does not learn what you want it to learn.However, it does learn to dislike training, and to dislike its trainer,i.e., you. Punishment usually creates more problems than it resolves.By definition, punishment decreases the frequency ofimmediately preceding behaviors. Apart from being de-motivatingfor the dog, repeated, ineffective punishment quickly erodes the veryfoundations of the relationship between dog and trainer. Also,technically, since ineffective punishment does not produce thedesired effect of reducing unwanted behavior, the inflicted "nasties"may not accurately be defined as punishment. If punishment does notdecrease unwanted behavior, then it is not punishment. It is merelyharassment. Abuse—pure and simple abuse!E's OF LURE/REWARD TRAINING27Phoenie and Oso say, "Training must be efficacious. Dogs don't want any unpleasant side-effects.Efficacious EnjoyableNow, call me a worm if you like, but instead of having to play the badguy, I would much rather praise my dog, pet her, and occasionallyoffer a tasty treat. And, as it happens, my ...

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